Title
Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of **asa1**, **gelE**, **cylA**, **esp**, and **hyl** genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of **Enterococcus faecium** Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of **asa1**, **gelE**, **cylA**, **esp**, and **hyl** genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of **Enterococcus faecium**
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication type
article
Publication
Washington, D.C. ,
Source (journal)
Journal of clinical microbiology. - Washington, D.C.
Volume/pages
42(2004) :10 , p. 4473-4479
ISSN
0095-1137
ISI
000224473000009
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
A multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of five virulence genes (asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl) in enterococci was developed. The presence of these genes was investigated in 153 clinical and 118 fecal Enterococcus faecium isolates from inpatients at an increased risk of developing infections (such as patients in intensive care units and hematology wards) from 13 hospitals in eight European countries. Of the 271 E. faecium isolates, 135 were vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VREF) isolates and 136 were vancomycin susceptible E. faecium (VSEF) isolates. Susceptibilities to ampicillin, gentamicin, streptomycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ramoplanin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and linezolid were tested by the microdilution method. Overall, the prevalence of esp was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in clinical VREF isolates (92%) than in fecal VREF isolates (73%). In Italy, the prevalence of esp was significantly higher (P = 0.02) in VREF isolates (91%) than in VSEF isolates (68%), whereas in the United Kingdom, hyl was significantly more prevalent (P = 0.01) in VREF isolates (71%) than in VSEF isolates (29%). No significant differences were found for the other countries. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to check the clonality among the strains tested and showed the spread of two center-specific (esp-positive) VREF clones in Italy and one center-specific (hyl-positive) clone in the United Kingdom. These clones were resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin, and streptomycin. The multiplex PCR reported in this study is a convenient and rapid method for the simultaneous detection of the virulence genes asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl in enterococci. Molecular analysis showed the intrahospital spread of esp-positive VREF clones (in Italy) and hyl-positive VREF clones (in the United Kingdom); the role of hyl remains to be elucidated.
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