Title
Chemical characterization and multivariate analysis of atmospheric <tex>$PM_{2.5}$</tex> particles Chemical characterization and multivariate analysis of atmospheric <tex>$PM_{2.5}$</tex> particles
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Publication type
article
Publication
Dordrecht ,
Source (journal)
Journal of atmospheric chemistry. - Dordrecht
Volume/pages
59(2008) :3 , p. 199-218
ISSN
0167-7764
ISI
000258087700004
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
The new European Council Directive (PE-CONS 3696/07) frames the inhalable (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5) on priority to chemically characterize these fractions in order to understand their possible relation with health effects. Considering this, PM2.5 was collected during four different seasons to evaluate the relative abundance of bulk elements (Cl, S, Si, Al, Br, Cu, Fe, Ti, Ca, K, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cr and V) and water soluble ions (F−, Cl−, NO2 −, NO3 −, SO4 2−, Na+, NH4 +, Ca2+ and Mg2+) over Menen, a Belgian city near the French border. The air quality over Menen is influenced by industrialized regions on both sides of the border. The most abundant ionic species were NO3 −, SO4 2− and NH4 +, and they showed distinct seasonal variation. The elevated levels of NO3 − during spring and summer were found to be related to the larger availability of the NOx precursor. The various elemental species analyzed were distinguished into crustal and anthropogenic source categories. The dominating elements were S and Cl in the PM2.5 particles. The anthropogenic fraction (e.g. Zn, Pb, and Cu) shows a more scattered abundance. Furthermore, the ions and elemental data were also processed using principal component analysis and cluster analysis to identify their sources and chemistry. These approach identifies anthropogenic (traffic and industrial) emissions as a major source for fine particles. The variations in the natural/anthropogenic fractions of PM2.5 were also found to be a function of meteorological conditions as well as of long-range transport of air masses from the industrialized regions of the continent.
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