Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Environmental health: a global access science source. - London
, p. 26,1-26,19
Background This study intended to investigate whether residence in areas polluted by heavy industry, waste incineration, a high density of traffic and housing or intensive use of pesticides, could contribute to the high incidence of cancer observed in Flanders. Methods Subjects were 1583 residents aged 5065 from 9 areas with different types of pollution. Cadmium, lead, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, PCBs and dioxin-like activity (Calux test) were measured in blood, and cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. Effect biomarkers were prostate specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and p53 protein serum levels, number of micronuclei per 1000 binucleated peripheral blood cells, DNA damage (comet assay) in peripheral blood cells and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in urine. Confounding factors were taken into account. Results Overall significant differences between areas were found for carcinoembryonic antigen, micronuclei, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and DNA damage. Compared to a rural area with mainly fruit production, effect biomarkers were often significantly elevated around waste incinerators, in the cities of Antwerp and Ghent, in industrial areas and also in other rural areas. Within an industrial area DNA strand break levels were almost three times higher close to industrial installations than 5 kilometres upwind of the main industrial installations (p < 0.0001). Positive exposure-effect relationships were found for carcinoembryonic antigen (urinary cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene and blood lead), micronuclei (PCB118), DNA damage (PCB118) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene). Also, we found significant associations between values of PSA above the p90 and higher values of urinary cadmium, between values of p53 above the p90 and higher serum levels of p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene and marker PCBs (PCB 138, 153 and 180) and between serum levels of p,p'-DDE above the p90 and higher serum values of carcinoembryonic antigen. Significant associations were also found between effect biomarkers and occupational or lifestyle parameters. Conclusion Levels of internal exposure, and residence near waste incinerators, in cities, or close to important industries, but not in areas with intensive use of pesticides, showed positive correlations with biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis and thus probably contribute to risk of cancer. In some rural areas, the levels of these biomarkers were not lower than in the rest of Flanders.