Publication
Title
Spatial and temporal variations in the occurrence of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in waste- and surface water from Belgium and removal during wastewater treatment
Author
Abstract
Estimates of cocaine consumption are currently resulting from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach (sewage epidemiology) based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), in water samples was applied to 10 river sites and 30 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Belgium. Each river site was sampled twice, during the summer of 2007 and the winter of 20072008, while each WWTP was sampled on a Sunday and a Wednesday, during the summerautumn of 2007 and the winter of 20072008. This sampling strategy allowed for the evaluation of spatial and seasonal variations in the occurrence of COC and BE in waste- and surface water. WWTP Brussel-Noord was sampled for 19 consecutive days to evaluate daily and weekly variations in the presence of COC and BE in wastewater. For 7 WWTPs, influent and effluent water samples were collected to investigate the removal of COC and BE during the wastewater treatment process. Analysis of water samples was performed using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Measured concentrations were further converted into an amount of used cocaine, called cocaine equivalents, as previously described in the literature. Results showed no significant difference in cocaine use between the investigated seasons. A constant cocaine consumption was observed during the week (MondayFriday) with peaks during the weekend for WWTP Brussel-Noord. The COC/BE ratio in water samples was significantly higher during winter, most probably due to a slower hydrolysis of cocaine in low-temperature water. COC and BE were removed in the investigated WWTPs with a removal efficiency of >93%.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Water research / International Association on Water Pollution Research. - Oxford, 1967, currens
Publication
Oxford : 2009
ISSN
0043-1354
Volume/pages
43:5(2009), p. 1341-1349
ISI
000264616300020
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 11.03.2009
Last edited 10.10.2017
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