Title
A critical re-evaluation of the association between 2D:4D ratios and fluctuating asymmetry in humans A critical re-evaluation of the association between 2D:4D ratios and fluctuating asymmetry in humans
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Publication type
article
Publication
London ,
Subject
Biology
Source (journal)
Annals of human biology. - London
Volume/pages
36(2009) :2 , p. 186-198
ISSN
0301-4460
ISI
000263815700006
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Background: Both asymmetry and the second and fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) relate to various aspects of human life history. Higher asymmetry with extreme 2D:4D ratios have suggested a link between both processes, indicating that early development determines levels of developmental instability. However, most observed associations may be biased because combinations of the digit lengths are used as both dependent and independent variables. Aim: The present study explored the usefulness of asymmetry in digits 2 and 4 to study this association. Subjects and methods: A combination of literature review, a small simulation study, and a study of 2D:4D ratios and asymmetry in a total of 100 young males and females is presented. Results: Using asymmetry in digits 2 and 4 results in bias and increased type I error rates, leading to stronger associations between asymmetry and 2D:4D ratios. In spite of low sample sizes, significant associations between asymmetry measured in hands and face and 2D:4D ratios were detected for asymmetries in digits 2 and 4 only. Conclusions: Using asymmetry in digits 2 and/or 4 causes bias. Excluding such results, there is currently little evidence of any association between asymmetry and digit ratios. Future studies should carefully select traits to investigate these correlations further.
E-info
http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000263815700006&DestLinkType=RelatedRecords&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=ef845e08c439e550330acc77c7d2d848
http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000263815700006&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=ef845e08c439e550330acc77c7d2d848
http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000263815700006&DestLinkType=CitingArticles&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=ef845e08c439e550330acc77c7d2d848
Handle