Concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust from United Kingdom cars, homes, and offices: causes of variability and implications for human exposure
Abdellah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Environment international. - Oxford
, p. 1170-1175
University of Antwerp
Average concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust in 30 homes, 18 offices, and 20 cars were 260,000, 31,000, and 340,000 ng ÓPBDEs g- 1 respectively. Concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 154 in cars exceeded significantly (p < 0.05) those in homes and offices. Average concentrations of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (TBE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in homes, offices, and cars respectively were lower at 120, 7.2, and 7.7 ng g− 1 (TBE) and 270, 170, and 400 ng g− 1 (DBDPE). BDE-209 concentrations in three samples are the highest to date at 2,600,000 (car), 2,200,000 (home), and 1,400,000 ng g− 1 (home). UK toddlers daily consuming 200 mg dust contaminated at the 95th percentile concentration, ingest 180 ng Ótri-hexa-BDEs and 310 ìg BDE-209 day− 1. For TBE, exposure was lower than for PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), while that for DBDPE was similar in magnitude to Ótri-hexa-BDEs, but less than for BDE-209 and HBCDs. BDE-209 concentrations recorded in ten samples taken at monthly intervals in one room varied 400-fold, implying caution when using single measurements of dust contamination for exposure assessment. Significant negative correlation was observed in one room between concentrations of BDE-47, 99, and 153 and dust loading (g dust m− 2 floor), suggesting dilution occurs at higher dust loadings.