Publication
Title
Characterization of a degraded cadmium yellow (CdS) pigment in an oil painting by means of synchrotron radiation based X-ray techniques
Author
Abstract
On several paintings of James Ensor (1860−1949), a gradual fading of originally bright yellow areas, painted with the pigment cadmium yellow (CdS), is observed. Additionally, in some areas exposed to light, the formation of small white-colored globules on top of the original paint surface is observed. In this paper the chemical transformation leading to the color change and to the formation of the globules is elucidated. Microscopic X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (ì-XANES) experiments show that sulfur, originally present in sulfidic form (S2−), is oxidized during the transformation to the sulfate form (S6+). Upon formation (at or immediately below the surface), the highly soluble cadmium sulfate is assumed to be transported to the surface in solution and reprecipitates there, forming the whitish globules. The presence of cadmium sulfate (CdSO4·2H2O) and ammonium cadmium sulfate [(NH4)2Cd(SO4)2] at the surface is confirmed by microscopic X-ray diffraction measurements, where the latter salt is suspected to result from a secondary reaction of cadmium sulfate with ammonia. Measurements performed on cross sections reveal that the oxidation front has penetrated into the yellow paint down to ca. 1−2 ìm. The morphology and elemental distribution of the paint and degradation product were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR ì-XRF). In addition, ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence photography (UIVFP) revealed itself to be a straightforward technique for documenting the occurrence of this specific kind of degradation on a macroscale by painting conservators.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Analytical chemistry. - Washington, D.C., 1948, currens
Publication
Washington, D.C. : 2009
ISSN
0003-2700 [print]
5206-882X [online]
Volume/pages
81:7(2009), p. 2600-2610
ISI
000264759400025
Full text (Publishers DOI)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 19.05.2009
Last edited 18.05.2017
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