Title
Hexabromocyclododecanes and tetrabromobisphenol-A in indoor air and dust in Birmingham, UK: implications for human exposure
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Publication type
article
Publication
Easton, Pa ,
Subject
Biology
Source (journal)
Environmental science and technology / American Chemical Society. - Easton, Pa
Volume/pages
42(2008) :18 , p. 6855-6861
ISSN
0013-936X
ISI
000259139400017
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Hexabromocyclododecanes (á-, â-, and ã-HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) were determined in indoor air from homes (n = 33; median concentrations ÓHBCDs = 180 pg m−3; TBBP-A = 15 pg m−3), offices (n = 25; 170; 11), public microenvironments (n = 4; 900; 27) and outdoor air (n = 5; 37; 1). HBCDs and TBBP-A were also determined in dust from homes (n = 45; median concentrations ÓHBCDs = 1300 ng g−1; TBBP-A = 62 ng g−1), offices (n = 28; 760; 36), cars (n = 20; 13,000; 2), and public microenvironments (n = 4; 2700; 230). While ÓHBCDs in car dust significantly exceeded (p < 0.05) those in homes and offices, TBBP-A in car dust was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in homes and offices. No significant differences were observed between ÓHBCDs and TBBP-A in air or dust from homes and offices. Compared to dietary and inhalation exposures, dust ingestion constitutes an important pathway of exposure to HBCDs and TBBP-A for the UK population. Specifically, using average dust ingestion rates and concentrations in dust, dust ingestion constitutes for adults 34% (TBBP-A) and 24% (HBCDs) of overall exposure, and for toddlers 90% (TBBP-A) and 63% (HBCDs). Inhalation appears a minor exposure pathway to both HBCDs and TBBP-A. On average, dust is 33% á-, 11% â-, and 56% ã-HBCD, while air is 22% á-, 11% â-, and 65% ã-HBCD.
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