Brominated flame retardants in Belgian home-produced eggs: levels and contamination sources
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
The science of the total environment. - Amsterdam
, p. 4387-4396
University of Antwerp
The extent and the sources of contamination with brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), in home-produced eggs from free-foraging chicken of Belgian private owners were investigated. Various factors, such as seasonal variability, exposure of chickens through diet (kitchen waste) and soil, and elimination of BFRs through eggs and faeces were assessed. PBDEs were more important than HBCD in terms of concentrations and detection frequency. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCD in Belgian home-produced eggs were relatively low and comparable with reported levels from other European countries and the US. The concentrations of PBDEs (sum of 13 congeners, including BDE 209) ranged between not detected and 32 ng/g lipid weight (lw), with medians of 3.0 and < 2.0 ng/g lw for the autumn 2006 and spring 2007 campaigns, respectively. When present, BDE 209 was the major PBDE congener (45% of sum PBDEs). When BDE 209 was not detected, the PBDE profile was composed of PentaBDE (BDE 99 and BDE 47), with, in some cases, higher contribution of OctaBDE (BDE 183 and BDE 153). HBCD was also detected (< 0.4 and 2.9 ng/g lw for the autumn 2006 and spring 2007 campaigns, respectively), but at lower detection frequency. The highest HBCD value was 62 ng/g lw. The similarity between profiles and seasonal variations in the concentrations of BFRs in soil and eggs indicate that soil is an important source, but not the sole source, for eggs laid by free-foraging chicken. The contamination of eggs with PBDEs and HBCD appears to be of low concern for public health and the contribution of eggs to the total daily intake of PBDEs appears to be limited (10% for chicken owners and 5% for the average Belgian consumer).