Publication
Title
Diet-dependent mucosal colonization and interleukin-1 responses in preterm pigs susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis
Author
Abstract
Objectives: Intestinal colonization challenges the neonatal innate immune system, especially in newborns with an immature immune response lacking the supportive bioactive components from mother's milk. Accordingly, formula-fed preterm pigs frequently show bacterial overgrowth, mucosal atrophy, and gut lesions reflecting necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) within the first days after birth. We hypothesized that NEC development is related to a diet-dependent bacterial adherence and a subsequent proinflammatory cytokine response in the gut mucosa immediately after introduction of enteral food. Materials and Methods: Premature piglets (92% gestation) received 2 to 3 days of total parenteral nutrition followed by 0, 8, or 17 hours of enteral formula or sow's colostrum feeding. Results: Following 8 hours, but not 17 hours, of colostrum feeding, a reduced number of intestinal samples with adherent bacteria (both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria) was counted compared with 0 or 8 hours of formula feeding. Besides a more dense colonization, formula feeding leads to higher intestinal interleukin-1â (IL-1â) levels and more NEC-like lesions from 8 hours onward. The load of adherent bacteria was especially high in NEC lesions. Toll-like receptor 4 was detected in enteroendocrine, neuronal, and smooth muscle cells, potentially mediating the increase in IL-1â levels by Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: Formula feeding facilitates bacterial adherence and the development of a proinflammatory state of the intestine, which may be among the key factors that predispose formula-fed preterm neonates to NEC.
Language
English
Source (journal)
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. - New York, N.Y.
Publication
New York, N.Y. : 2009
ISSN
0277-2116
Volume/pages
49:1(2009), p. 90-98
ISI
000267383400014
Full text (Publisher's DOI)
UAntwerpen
Faculty/Department
Research group
Publication type
Subject
Affiliation
Publications with a UAntwerp address
External links
Web of Science
Record
Identification
Creation 17.08.2009
Last edited 03.08.2017
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