Glow discharge optical spectroscopy and mass spectrometry
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Chichester :Wiley, 2009
Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry / Meyers, R.A. [edit.]
University of Antwerp
Optical (atomic absorption spectroscopy, AAS; atomic emission spectroscopy, AES; atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, AFS; and optogalvanic spectroscopy) and mass spectrometric (magnetic sector, quadrupolemass analyzer, QMA; quadrupole ion trap, QIT; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, FTICR; and time-of-flight, TOF) instrumentation are well suited for coupling to the glow discharge (GD). The GD is a relatively simple device. A potential gradient (5001500 V) is applied between an anode and a cathode. In most cases, the sample is also the cathode. A noble gas (e.g. Ar, Ne, and Xe) is introduced into the discharge region before power initiation. When a potential is applied, electrons are accelerated toward the anode. As these electrons accelerate, they collide with gas atoms. A fraction of these collisions are of sufficient energy to remove an electron from a support gas atom, forming an ion. These ions are, in turn, accelerated toward the cathode. These ions impinge on the surface of the cathode, sputtering sample atoms from the surface. Sputtered atoms that do not redeposit on the surface diffuse into the excitation/ionization regions of the plasma where they can undergo excitation and/or ionization via a number of collisional processes. GD sources offer a number of distinct advantages that make them well suited for specific types of analyses. These sources afford direct analysis of solid samples, thus minimizing the sample preparation required for analysis. The nature of the plasma also provides mutually exclusive atomization and excitation processes that help to minimize the matrix effects that plague so many other elemental techniques. Unfortunately, the GD source functions optimally in a dry environment, making analysis of solutions more difficult. These sources also suffer from difficulties associated with analyzing nonconductingsamples. In this article, first, the principles of operation of the GD plasma are reviewed, with an emphasis on how those principles relate to optical spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Basic applications of the GD techniques are considered next. These include bulk analysis, surface analysis, and the analysis of solution samples. The requirements necessary to obtain optical information are addressed following the analytical applications. This section focuses on the instrumentation needed to make optical measurements using the GD as an atomization/excitation source. Finally, mass spectrometric instrumentation and interfaces are addressed as they pertain to the use of a GD plasma as an ion source. GDsources provide analytically useful gas-phase species from solid samples. These sources can be interfaced with avariety of spectroscopic and spectrometric instruments for both quantitative and qualitative analysis.