Title
Upper airway mechanics Upper airway mechanics
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication type
article
Publication
Basel ,
Subject
Human medicine
Source (journal)
Respiration. - Basel
Volume/pages
78(2009) :2 , p. 121-133
ISSN
0025-7931
ISI
000268107600001
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed ventilatory system mechanics and neurohormonal changes. Concepts are changing. Although sleep apnoea is considered more and more to be an increased loop gain disorder, the central type of apnoea is now considered as an obstructive event, because it causes pharyngeal narrowing, associated with prolonged expiration. Although a unifying concept for the pathogenesis is lacking, it seems that these patients are in a vicious circle. Knowledge of common patterns of sleep-disordered breathing may help to identify these patients and guide therapy.
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