Insulin treatment in IA-2A-positive relatives of type 1 diabetic patients
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Diabetes & metabolism. - Paris, 1996, currens
, p. 319-327
University of Antwerp
Aims We examined whether parenteral regular insulin can prevent diabetes in IA-2 antibody-positive (IA-2A+) relatives of type 1 diabetic patients, using a trial protocol that differed substantially from that of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-1. Methods Twenty-five IA-2A+ relatives received regular human insulin twice a day for 36 months, during which time they were followed (median [interquartile range; IQR]: 47  months) for glucose tolerance, HbA1c and islet autoantibodies, together with 25 IA-2A+ relatives (observation/control group) who fulfilled the same inclusion criteria, but were observed for 52  months (P = 0.58). Results Twelve (48%) insulin-treated relatives and 15 (60%) relatives in the control group developed diabetes. There was no difference in diabetes-free survival between the two groups (P = 0.97). Five-year progression (95% confidence interval) was 44% (2569) in the insulin-treated group and 49% (2970) in the observation group. At inclusion, progressors tended to have a higher pro-insulin/C-peptide ratio than non-progressors when measured 2 hours after a standardized glucose load (median [IQR]: 2.7% [1.84.3] vs. 1.6% [1.12.1]; P = 0.01). No major hypoglycaemic episodes or significant increases in body mass index or diabetes autoantibodies were observed. Conclusion Prophylactic injections of regular human insulin were well tolerated, but failed to prevent type 1 diabetes onset in IA-2A+ relatives.