Coping with TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromeCoping with TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Epidemiology and social medicine (ESOC)
Expert review of respiratory medicine
3(2009):2, p. 147-152
University of Antwerp
The TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a relatively frequent complication in HIVTB-coinfected patients after they start highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There are two forms of TB IRIS: the paradoxical type (clinical worsening of a patient on TB treatment) and the unmasking type (undiagnosed TB becoming apparent after starting HAART). Their pathogeneses are not fully understood, although, as the name suggests, IRIS following initiation of HAART is accompanied by an increase in immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TB IRIS is mainly clinical; so far there are no laboratory tests able to diagnose or predict TB IRIS. Risk factors for TB IRIS include a low CD4+ lymphocyte count, disseminated TB infection at HAART initiation and a short interval between TB treatment and HAART initiation. TB IRIS complicates the treatment and care for HIVTB-coinfected patients. In this paper, we discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and options for the treatment and prevention of TB IRIS.