A randomized, dose-response study of sugammadex given for the reversal of deep rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade under sevoflurane anesthesia
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Anesthesia and analgesia / International Anesthesia Research Society. - Cleveland, Ohio, 1957, currens
, p. 74-82
University of Antwerp
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is the first of a new class of selective muscle relaxant binding drugs developed for the rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium and vecuronium. Many studies have demonstrated a dose-response relationship with sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular blockade in patients induced and maintained under propofol anesthesia. However, sevoflurane anesthesia, unlike propofol, can prolong the effect of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) such as rocuronium and vecuronium. METHODS: We designed this randomized, open-label, dose-response trial to explore the dose-response relationship of sugammadex for the reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium or vecuronium under propofol-induced and sevoflurane-maintained anesthesia. As a secondary objective, the safety variables of sugammadex were evaluated. After anesthesia induction with propofol, 102 patients aged >=20 and <65 yr were randomized to receive a single bolus dose of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg (n = 50) or vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg (n = 52), followed by maintenance doses (rocuronium 0.1-0.2 mg/kg or vecuronium 0.02-0.03 mg/kg) as needed. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored using acceleromyography. After the last dose of NMBD, at 1-2 posttetanic counts, a single bolus dose of sugammadex 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mg/kg was administered. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of sugammadex administration to recovery of the T4/T1 ratio to 0.9. RESULTS: The per-protocol population consisted of 48 patients in the rocuronium group and 47 in the vecuronium group. A dose-response effect was demonstrated for decreased mean time to recovery of the T4/T1 ratio to 0.9 with increasing sugammadex dose in both NMBD groups (per-protocol population): rocuronium group, 79.8 (sd 33.0) min (sugammadex 0.5 mg/kg) to 1.7 (0.7) min (4.0 mg/kg) and 1.1 (0.3) min (8.0 mg/kg subgroup); vecuronium group, 68.4 (31.9) min (0.5 mg/kg) to 3.3 (3.5) min (4.0 mg/kg), and 1.7 (0.8) min (8.0 mg/kg subgroup). Neuromuscular monitoring showed recurrent neuromuscular blockade in 5 patients, all in the rocuronium group (2 given sugammadex 0.5 mg/kg and 3 given 1.0 mg/kg), but there were no clinical events attributable to recurrent or residual neuromuscular blockade. CONCLUSION: Sugammadex at doses of >=4 mg/kg provides rapid reversal of deep rocuronium- and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade under sevoflurane maintenance anesthesia.