Title
Tsetse fly saliva biases the immune response to Th2 and induces anti-vector antibodies that are a useful tool for exposure assessment
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Publication type
article
Publication
Oxford ,
Subject
Human medicine
Source (journal)
International journal for parasitology. - Oxford
Volume/pages
36(2006) :9 , p. 1025-1035
ISSN
0020-7519
0020-7519
ISI
000240048000006
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Abstract
Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are blood-feeding dipteran insects that transmit African trypanosomes, parasites that are responsible for human sleeping sickness and veterinary infections. Increasing attention is being paid to the effects of tsetse fly saliva deposited at the feeding site, which enables the blood-feeding process and putatively promotes parasite transmission. Here we demonstrate that saliva induces strong humoral responses against the major 4345 kDa protein fraction (tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 Tsal1 and Tsal2) in mice and humans and suppresses murine T and B cell responses to heterologous antigen. The saliva-induced immune response is associated with a Th2-biased cytokine profile and the production of mainly IgG1 and IgE antibody isotypes. Functionally, the antibodies raised in mice exposed to tsetse fly bites or induced after experimental saliva immunisation do not affect the flys blood-feeding efficiency nor its survival. We propose that anti-saliva as well as anti-Tsal1/2 antibody responses can be used in epidemiological studies as a tool to analyze human exposure to tsetse flies.
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