Number of sites of perinatal Candida colonization and neutropenia are associated with nosocomial candidemia in the neonatal intensive care unit patient
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Des Plaines, Ill.
Pediatric critical care medicine / Society of Critical Care Medicine. - Des Plaines, Ill.
, p. 240-245
University of Antwerp
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of perinatally acquired Candida colonization to invasive Candida infection (candidemia) and to assess risk factors associated with Candida colonization and candidemia in neonatal intensive care unit patients. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 39 of 3219 (1.2%) who were positive for Candida colonization at birth were compared with 117 noncolonized controls. INTERVENTIONS: Routine surveillance cultures for Candida of skin and meconium were performed at admission. All neonates with Candida colonization at birth during a 10-yr period were identified. Each case was matched to place of birth and date of admission with three noncolonized controls. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Perinatal and neonatal variables were collected. Blood or skin culture was obtained when signs of sepsis or dermatitis were present. Patients with Candida colonization were compared with their noncolonized controls, whereas in this cohort, patients with candidemia were compared with those without by multivariate analysis. Vaginal candidiasis (odds ratio [OR] 15.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.63, 94.77), birth weight below 1000 g (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.22, 52.26), and vaginal delivery (OR 7.08, 95% CI 1.17, 42.70) were associated with Candida colonization. An increased risk for nosocomial candidemia was independently associated with the number of sites of Candida colonization (OR 24.02, 95% CI 1.89, 304), early neonatal neutropenia (OR 7.15, 95% CI 0.98, 80.95) and illness severity (clinical risk index for babies [CRIB]) score at day 1 (OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.065, 1.811). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vaginal candidiasis and vaginal birth are risk factors for neonatal colonization. When controlling for illness severity, the number of sites colonized with Candida at birth contributes to neonatal nosocomial candidemia. Early neutropenia increases the risk further. These findings offer opportunities for prevention of Candida infection in neonatal intensive care unit patients.