Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in animals and man: prescribing, practices and policies
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
The journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. - London, 1975, currens
, p. i3-i17
University of Antwerp
This meeting focused on infections in humans and animals due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria and Clostridium difficile, and their corresponding treatments. MRSA is predominantly a human pathogen, and molecular typing has revealed that certain clones have spread widely both between humans and from humans to animals. ESBL-producing bacteria, particularly those that express the CTX-M β-lactamases, have been disseminated worldwide. Whilst such strains are usually isolated from humans, some animal isolates also produce CTX-M enzymes. In humans, one clone of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli, sequence type (ST)131, has been particularly successful. C. difficile, often ribotype 027, commonly colonizes the hospital environment and causes serious infections in humans. In animals, ribotype 078 is more often found, and is an important cause of diarrhoea in piglets. There is a concern that the numbers of MRSA or other antimicrobial-resistant bacteria might increase further when human isolates become established in animals, as this can amplify the numbers of such bacteria by dissemination within animal groups with subsequent spread back to humans. Certain antimicrobials have been implicated in the selection of MRSA, ESBL-producing bacteria and predisposition to infection by C. difficile. Guidelines for treatment and prevention of infections by MRSA, ESBL-producing bacteria and C. difficile were discussed and evidence-based policies were recommended for both humans and animals.