Differential chemosensitization of P-glycoprotein overexpressing K562/Adr cells by withaferin A and Siamois polyphenols
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences . Biomedical Sciences
Molecular cancer. - London
, p. 99,1-99,22
University of Antwerp
Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment and is often the result of overexpression of the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as a consequence of hyperactivation of NFκB, AP1 and Nrf2 transcription factors. In addition to effluxing chemotherapeutic drugs, P-gp also plays a specific role in blocking caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. One feature that cytotoxic treatments of cancer have in common is activation of the transcription factor NFκB, which regulates inflammation, cell survival and P-gp expression and suppresses the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic agents. As such, NFκB inhibitors may promote apoptosis in cancer cells and could be used to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Results Although the natural withanolide withaferin A and polyphenol quercetin, show comparable inhibition of NFκB target genes (involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell cycle, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and multidrug resistance) in doxorubicin-sensitive K562 and -resistant K562/Adr cells, only withaferin A can overcome attenuated caspase activation and apoptosis in K562/Adr cells, whereas quercetin-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis is delayed only. Interestingly, although withaferin A and quercetin treatments both decrease intracellular protein levels of Bcl2, Bim and P-Bad, only withaferin A decreases protein levels of cytoskeletal tubulin, concomitantly with potent PARP cleavage, caspase 3 activation and apoptosis, at least in part via a direct thiol oxidation mechanism. Conclusions This demonstrates that different classes of natural NFκB inhibitors can show different chemosensitizing effects in P-gp overexpressing cancer cells with impaired caspase activation and attenuated apoptosis.