Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in air and dust from electronic waste storage facilities in Thailand
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Environment international. - Oxford
, p. 690-698
University of Antwerp
This study reports concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust samples (n = 25) and in indoor (n = 5) and outdoor air (n = 10) (using PUF disk passive air samplers) from 5 electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) storage facilities in Thailand. Concentrations of Σ10PBDEs (BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154) in outdoor air in the vicinity of e-waste storage facilities ranged from 8 to 150 pg m− 3. Indoor air concentrations ranged from 46 to 350 pg m− 3, with highest concentrations found in a personal computer and printer waste storage room at an e-waste storage facility. These are lower than reported previously for electronic waste treatment facilities in China, Sweden, and the US. Concentrations of Σ21PBDEs (Σ10PBDEs + BDEs 181, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), decabromobiphenyl (BB-209) in dust were 320290,000, 438700 and < 202300 ng g− 1 respectively, with the highest concentrations of Σ21PBDEs, BDE-209 and DBDPE in a room used to house discarded TVs, stereos and radios. PBDE concentrations in dust were slightly higher but within the range of those detected in workshop floor dust from an e-waste recycling centre in China. The highest concentration of BB-209 was detected in a room storing discarded personal computers and printers. Consistent with recent reports of elevated ratios of BDE-208:BDE-209 and BDE-183:BDE-209 in household electronics from South China, percentage ratios of BDE-208:BDE-209 (0.642.9%) and of BDE-208:BDE-183 (2.8933%) in dust samples exceeded substantially those present in commercial deca-BDE and octa-BDE formulations. This suggests direct migration of BDE-208 and other nonabrominated BDEs from e-waste to the environment. Under realistic high-end scenarios of occupational exposure to BDE-99, workers in the facilities were exposed above a recently-published Health Based Limit Value for this congener. Reassuringly, estimated exposures to BDE-209 were below the USEPA's reference dose for this congener.