The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in imbalanced 2D Fermi gases: the role of fluctuations
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Physica: C: superconductivity. - Amsterdam
, p. 809-813
University of Antwerp
The physics of two-dimensional (2D) quantum gases can be revealed in strongly confining optical lattices. Upon cooling, 2D bosonic quantum gases as well as Fermi gases where pairing is present, become superfluid. The superfluid-to-normal transition is no longer governed by the presence or absence of a condensate, but by the BerezinskiiKosterlitzThouless (BKT) mechanism: above a critical temperature, vortices and antivortices proliferate and destroy phase coherence. We investigate the BKT transition for superfluid 2D Fermi gases in the whole range of the BCSBEC crossover, from weakly bound Cooper pairing (the BCS state), up to strongly bound molecules (the BEC state). Using a path-integral description, we then focus on the case of imbalanced gases: when the number of spin-up and spin-down fermions that form the pair is no longer equal. When an excess of one spin species exists, pairing is frustrated and the vortex energetics is strongly affected, influencing the KT mechanism. In the present work we are concentrated on the effect of both phase and amplitude fluctuations on phase diagrams of the fermion system. The amplitude fluctuations only slightly influence the BKT phase transition temperature. However, they lead to a substantial modification of the complete phase diagram for the Fermi gas in 2D with respect to that obtained taking into account only phase fluctuations.