Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds in indoor dust from homes and offices in Flanders, Belgium
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Chemosphere. - Oxford, 1972, currens
, p. 478-487
University of Antwerp
The increasing time spent indoors combined with the abundant usage of diverse indoor chemicals led to concerns involving the impact of these compounds on human health. The current study focused on two groups of important indoor contaminants i.e. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Concentrations of both compound classes have been measured in Flemish indoor dust samples from homes and offices. RPolybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (BDE 47, 99, 100, 154, 153, 197, 196 and 203) and BDE 209 in homes ranged between 41214 ng g1 dw (median 35) and <5 5295 ng g1 dw (median 313), respectively. Hexabromocyclododecane (RHBCD) levels ranged from 5 to 42 692 ng g1 dw (median 130), with a-HBCD being the major isomer (mean 59%). In addition, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) ranged between <3 and 419 ng g1 dw (median 12). For all BFRs, median levels in office dust were up to an order of magnitude higher than in home dust. RPFCs (sum of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)) concentrations in homes ranged from 0.2 to 336 ng g1 (median 3.0 ng g1). Levels in office dust were higher (p < 0.01) than in house dust with RPFCs ranging between 2.2 and 647 ng g1 (median 10 ng g1) and median (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate values of 2.9 and 2.2 ng g1, respectively. The congener pattern was dominated by PFOA, followed by PFOS. Calculated human exposure was below the reference dose values set by the US-EPA for BDE 209, HBCD and below the provisional tolerable daily intakes proposed by European Food Safety Authority for PFOS and PFOA.