Modulation of CYP1A1 activity by a **Ginkgo biloba** extract in the human intestinal Caco-2 cellsModulation of CYP1A1 activity by a **Ginkgo biloba** extract in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE)
Toxicology letters. - Amsterdam
202(2011):3, p. 193-202
University of Antwerp
Ginkgo biloba is a widely consumed dietary supplement. Some dietary active compounds modulate the activity of biotransformation enzymes inside the enterocytes and more interestingly of cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1). This enzyme is of a particular interest because of its implication in the metabolism of some exogenous pro-carcinogens or endogenous molecules. In the present work, we have used Caco-2 cells to study the effect of a standard reference material of a Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) (10400 μg/ml), as well as of its major individual active compounds (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides and bilobalide), alone or in mixtures, at realistic intestinal concentrations, on the induction of CYP1A1 activity, in the presence or absence of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.1 μg/ml), a well-known CYP1A1 inducer. 3-O-rutinosides of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin were also tested. We have demonstrated a strong induction (p < 0.005) of CYP1A1 activity and a slight, but significant (p < 0.005), decrease of this activity in the presence of B[a]P by the GBE at the realistic exposure level of 100 μg/ml. The inductive effect was explained, in part, by quercetin and kaempferol after 24 h exposure while unknown compounds seem to be responsible for the strong CYP1A1 induction observed after 6 h exposure. The inhibitory potency of flavonols on CYP1A1 activity in presence of B[a]P was much stronger for the aglycones than for the 3-O-rutinosides, explaining the slight effect observed with the GBE, mainly composed of glycosylated flavonoids. These results indicate that GBEs may disturb intestinal CYP1A1 activity and, in turn, affect the metabolism of other compounds. The present paper thus highlights the necessity to take these side effects into account when administrating Ginkgo biloba herbal supplements.