Commuting trips within tours : how is commuting related to land use?
Faculty of Applied Economics
Transportation: planning, policy, research, practice. - Amsterdam
, p. 465-486
Studies that model the effects of land use on commuting generally use a trip-based approach or a more aggregated individual-based approach: i.e. commuting is conceptualized in terms of modal choice, distance and time per single trip, or in terms of daily commuting distance or time. However, people try to schedule activities in a daily pattern and, thus, consider tours instead of trips. Data from the 2000 to 2001 Travel Behaviour Survey in Ghent (Belgium) illustrate that car use and commuting times significantly differ between commuting trips within work-only tours and more complex tours. Therefore, this paper considers trip-related decisions simultaneously with tour-related decisions. A multiple group structural equation model (SEM) confirmed that the relationship between land use and commuting differs between work-only tours and more complex tours. Trips should be considered within tours in order to correctly understand the effect of land use scenarios such as densifying on commuting. Moreover, the use of multiple group SEM enabled us to address the issue of the complex nature of commuting. Due to interactions between various explanatory variables, land use patterns do not always have the presumed effect on commuting. Land use policy can successfully influence commuting, but only if it simultaneously accounts for the effects on car availability, car use, commuting distance and commuting time.