Ozone dose-response relationships for spring oilseed rape and broccoli
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Atmospheric environment : an international journal. - Oxford, 1994, currens
, p. 1759-1765
University of Antwerp
Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant with known detrimental effects for several crops. Ozone effects on seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and 1000 seed weight were examined for spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Ability). For broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. Italica cv. Monaco) the effects on fresh marketable weight and total dry weight were studied. Current ozone levels were compared with an increase of 20 and 40 ppb during 8 h per day, over the entire growing season. Oilseed rape seed yield was negatively correlated with ozone dose indices calculated from emergence until harvest. This resulted in an R2 of 0.24 and 0.26 (p < 0.001) for the accumulated hourly O3 exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) and the phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m−2 s−1 (POD6) respectively. Estimated critical levels, above which 5% yield reduction is expected, were 3.7 ppm h and 4.4 mmol m−2 respectively. Our results also confirm that a threshold value of 6 nmol s−1 m−2 projected leaf area, as recommended for agricultural crops (UNECE, Mills, 2004), can indeed be applied for spring oilseed rape. The reduction of oilseed rape yield showed the highest correlation with the ozone uptake during the vegetative growth stage: when only the first 47 days after emergence were used to calculate POD6, R2 values increased up to 0.476 or even 0.545 when the first 23 days were excluded. The highest ozone treatments, corresponding to the future ambient level by 2100 (IPCC, Meehl et al., 2007), led to a reduction of approximately 30% in oilseed rape seed yield in comparison to the current ozone concentrations. Oil percentage was also significantly reduced in response to ozone (p < 0.001). As a consequence oil yield was even more severely affected by elevated ozone exposure compared to seed yield: critical levels for oil yield dropped to 3.2 ppm h and 3.9 mmol m−2. For broccoli the applied ozone doses had no effect on yield.