Title
Intrinsic susceptibility of **Giardia duodenalis** assemblage subtypes <tex>$A_{I}$</tex>, <tex>$A_{II}$</tex>, B and <tex>$E_{III}$</tex> for nitric oxide under axenic culture conditions Intrinsic susceptibility of **Giardia duodenalis** assemblage subtypes <tex>$A_{I}$</tex>, <tex>$A_{II}$</tex>, B and <tex>$E_{III}$</tex> for nitric oxide under axenic culture conditions
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication type
article
Publication
Berlin ,
Subject
Biology
Pharmacology. Therapy
Human medicine
Source (journal)
Parasitology research. - Berlin
Volume/pages
110(2012) :3 , p. 1315-1319
ISSN
0932-0113
ISI
000300523700032
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
The antigiardial effects of nitric oxide (NO⋅) have been reported in vitro, but only for assemblage AI lab strains. This study investigated the intrinsic NO⋅ susceptibility of different assemblage subtypes. The susceptibility (IC50) for NO⋅ released by MAHMA NONOate was studied for three lab (WB, G1 and GS/M-83-H7) and six field isolates of assemblage subtypes AI, AII, B and EIII. Tests were performed in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with l-cysteine HCl, trypticase peptone, powder bovine bile and 20% inactivated foetal calf serum (for assemblages A and E) or human serum (for assemblage B), adjusted to pH 7.3, to support adequate trophozoite survival. Flow cytometry with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide as viability indicators was used to determine trophozoite viability. This study indicated that the NO⋅ susceptibilities of assemblage A lab and field strains (subtypes AI and AII) were fully comparable, indicating that the NO⋅ susceptibility of the lab strains remained representative for their genotype. The trophozoites of assemblages B and EIII showed comparable NO⋅ susceptibilities that were markedly higher than the susceptibilities of assemblage subtypes AI and AII. This study suggests a role for the assemblage subtype in defining NO⋅ susceptibilities. The underlying mechanisms still need to be elucidated, but assemblage-linked differences in the expression of the genes coding for flavohemoglobin or A-type flavoprotein may certainly deserve further attention.
E-info
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