Size resolved ultrafine particles emission model : a continues size distribution approachSize resolved ultrafine particles emission model : a continues size distribution approach
Faculty of Sciences. Bioscience Engineering
Sustainable Energy, Air and Water Technology
Engineering sciences. Technology
The science of the total environment. - Amsterdam
409(2011):18, p. 3492-3499
University of Antwerp
A new parameterization for size resolved ultrafine particles (UFP) traffic emissions is proposed based on the results of PARTICULATES project (Samaras et al., 2005). It includes the emission factors from the Emission Inventory Guidebook (2006) (total number of particles, #/km/veh), the shape of the corresponding particle size distribution given in PARTICULATES and data for the traffic activity. The output of the model UFPEM (UltraFine Particle Emission Model) is a sum of continuous distributions of ultrafine particles emissions per vehicle type (passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles), fuel (petrol and diesel) and average speed representative for urban, rural and highway driving. The results from the parameterization are compared with measured total number of ultrafine particles and size distributions in a tunnel in Antwerp (Belgium). The measured UFP concentration over the entire campaign shows a close relation to the traffic activity. The modelled concentration is found to be lower than the measured in the campaign. The average emission factor from the measurement is 4.29E + 14 #/km/veh whereas the calculated is around 30% lower. A comparison of emission factors with literature is done as well and in overall a good agreement is found. For the size distributions it is found that the measured distributions consist of three modes Nucleation, Aitken and accumulation and most of the ultrafine particles belong to the Nucleation and the Aitken modes. The modelled Aitken mode (peak around 0.040.05 μm) is found in a good agreement both as amplitude of the peak and the number of particles whereas the modelled Nucleation mode is shifted to smaller diameters and the peak is much lower that the observed. Time scale analysis shows that at 300 m in the tunnel coagulation and deposition are slow and therefore neglected. The UFPEM emission model can be used as a source term in dispersion models.