Application of hydrophilic interaction chromatography for the analysis of polar contaminants in food and environmental samples
van Nuijs, Alexander L.N.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Pharmacy
Journal of chromatography: A. - Amsterdam
, p. 5964-5974
University of Antwerp
For the analysis of highly hydrophilic and polar compounds, Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) has been established as a valuable complementary approach to reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Moreover, the use of mobile phases with a high percentage of organic solvent in HILIC separation is beneficial for mass spectrometric (MS) detection, because of enhanced ionization which results in an increased sensitivity. In this review, various applications of HILIC are described for a number of environmental and food contaminants together with detailed methodological descriptions and the advantages or drawbacks of HILIC compared to other LC methods are critically discussed. In the first part of the review, an overview is given of the work that has been carried out with HILIC for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in environmental samples. HILIC has shown its applicability for polar pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics, estrogens and their metabolites, drugs of abuse, cytostatics, metformin and contrast agents. In the pesticide group, HILIC chromatography was helpful for polar phenylurea and organophosphorus pesticides. The second part of the review focuses on the analysis of antibiotic residues in food and feed with HILIC, while in the pesticide group, HILIC experiments have been reported for dithiocarbamates and quaternary ammonium compounds. The last chapter gives an overview of the analysis by HILIC of miscellaneous analytes in aquatic and food/feed samples.