Title
European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) : outpatient penicillin use in Europe (1997-2009) European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) : outpatient penicillin use in Europe (1997-2009)
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Mathematics and Computer Science
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Publication type
article
Publication
London ,
Subject
Biology
Pharmacology. Therapy
Human medicine
Source (journal)
The journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. - London, 1975, currens
Volume/pages
66(2011) :S:6 , p. vi13-vi23
ISSN
0305-7453
1460-2091
ISI
000297228400003
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Background Data on 13 years (19972009) of outpatient penicillin use were collected from 33 European countries within the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project and analysed in detail. Methods For the period 19972009, data on outpatient use of systemic penicillins aggregated at the level of the active substance were collected using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/defined daily dose (DDD) method (WHO, version 2011) and expressed in DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). For detailed analysis of trends over time, seasonal variation and composition of outpatient penicillin use in 33 European countries, we distinguished between narrow-spectrum penicillins (NSP), broad-spectrum penicillins (BSP), penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRP) and combinations with β-lactamase inhibitors (COP). Results Total outpatient penicillin (ATC group J01C) use in 2009 varied by a factor of 3.8 between the countries with the highest (16.08 DID in France) and lowest (4.23 DID in the Russian Federation) use. COP represented 45.8%, BSP 40.7%, NSP 10.8% and PRP 2.6% of total European outpatient penicillin use. Total outpatient penicillin use significantly increased over time by 1.53 (SD 0.71) DID between 1997 and 2009. COP (mainly co-amoxiclav) increased by 2.17 (SD 0.40) DID, which was the result of its absolute increase as well as the observed shift from NSP and BSP towards COP. This increase exceeded 10% in 20 countries, where it coincided with a similar decrease in either BSP (15 countries) or NSP (5 countries). Conclusions Penicillins represented the most widely used antibiotic subgroup in all 33 participating countries, albeit with considerable variation in their use patterns. For Europe, a continuous increase in overall penicillin use and of COP use was observed during the period 19972009.
E-info
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