Antibody persistence and immune memory in healthy adults following vaccination with a two-dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine : long-term follow-up at 15 years
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
New York, N.Y.
Journal of medical virology. - New York, N.Y.
, p. 1885-1891
University of Antwerp
Long-term persistence of vaccine-induced immune response in adults was assessed annually for 15 years following primary immunization with a two-dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. In 1992, 119 and 194 subjects aged 1740 years and naïve for hepatitis A virus (HAV) were enrolled in two studies to receive 1,440 ELISA units (El.U) of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Belgium) according to a standard 0, 6 or an extended 0, 12 months schedule, respectively. Serum samples were taken 1 month after the second vaccine dose and every consecutive year up to 15 years after primary vaccination for measurement of anti-HAV antibody concentrations (NCT00291876 and NCT00289757). At year 15, 100% (48/48) and 97.3% (108/111) of subjects vaccinated at 0, 6 or 0, 12 months remained seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies, with geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of 289.2 and 367.4 mIU/ml, respectively. An additional dose of HAV vaccine (1,440 El.U) was administered to the six subjects who had become seronegative for anti-HAV antibodies since year 11. All subjects mounted a humoral immune response to the additional HAV challenge dose, although post-challenge anti-HAV antibody levels remained low in one subject. These studies represent the longest annual follow-up of hepatitis A vaccine in healthy adults. The immune response induced by two doses of this inactivated HAV vaccine was shown to persist for at least 15 years. No difference in long-term antibody persistence was observed between the two primary vaccination schedules, reinforcing the potential for flexibility in the timing of the second primary vaccine dose.