Fluid simulation of the phase-shift effect in hydrogen capacitively coupled plasmas: 2 : radial uniformity of the plasma characteristics
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Journal of physics: D: applied physics. - London
, p. 015203,1-015203,13
University of Antwerp
A two-dimensional fluid model, including the full set of Maxwell equations, has been developed and applied to investigate the effect of a phase shift between two power sources on the radial uniformity of several plasma characteristics in a hydrogen capacitively coupled plasma. This study was carried out at various frequencies in the range 13.56200 MHz. When the frequency is low, at 13.56 MHz, the plasma density is characterized by an off-axis peak when both power sources are in-phase (phgr = 0), and the best radial uniformity is obtained at phgr = π. This trend can be explained because the radial nonuniformity caused by the electrostatic edge effect can be effectively suppressed by the phase-shift effect at a phase difference equal to π. When the frequency rises to 60 MHz, the plasma density profiles shift smoothly from edge-peaked over uniform to centre-peaked as the phase difference increases, due to the pronounced standing-wave effect, and the best radial uniformity is reached at phgr = 0.3π. At a frequency of 100 MHz, a similar behaviour is observed, except that the maximum of the plasma density moves again towards the radial edge at the reverse-phase case (phgr = π), because of the dominant skin effect. When the frequency is 200 MHz, the bulk plasma density increases significantly with increasing phase-shift values, and a better uniformity is obtained at phgr = 0.4π. This is because the density in the centre increases faster than at the radial edge as the phase difference rises, due to the increasing power deposition Pz in the centre and the decreasing power density Pr at the radial edge. As the phase difference increases to π, the maximum near the radial edge becomes obvious again. This is because the skin effect has a predominant influence on the plasma density under this condition, resulting in a high density at the radial edge. Moreover, the axial ion flux increases monotonically with phase difference, and exhibits similar profiles to the plasma density. The calculation results illustrate that the radial uniformity of the various plasma characteristics is strongly dependent on the applied frequency and the phase shift between both power sources, which is important to realize, for controlling the uniformity of the plasma etch and deposition processes.