Hydrogen impurities and native defects in CdO
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
New York, N.Y. :American Institute of Physics
Journal of applied physics / American Institute of Physics. - New York, N.Y., 1937, currens
, p. 063521,1-063521,7
University of Antwerp
We have used first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to study point defects in CdO within the local density approximation and beyond (LDA+U). Hydrogen interstitials and oxygen vacancies are found to act as shallow donors and can be interpreted as the cause of conductivity in CdO. Hydrogen can also occupy an oxygen vacancy in its substitutional form and also acts as a shallow donor. Similar to what was found for ZnO and MgO, hydrogen creates a multicenter bond with its six oxygen neighbors in CdO. The charge neutrality level for native defects and hydrogen impurities has been calculated. It is shown that in the case of native defects, it is not uniquely defined. Indeed, this level depends highly on the chemical potentials of the species and one can obtain different values for different end states in the experiment. Therefore, a comparison with experiment can only be made if the chemical potentials of the species in the experiment are well defined. However, for the hydrogen interstitial defect, since this level is independent of the chemical potential of hydrogen, one can obtain a unique value for the charge neutrality level. We find that the Fermi level stabilizes at 0.43 eV above the conduction band minimum in the case of the hydrogen interstitial defect, which is in good agreement with the experimentally reported value of 0.4 eV.