Title Evaluation of manganese-bodies removal in historical stained glass windows via $SR-\mu-XANES/XRF$ and $SR-\mu-CT$ Author Cagno, Simone Nuyts, Gert Bugani, Simone De Vis, Kristel Schalm, Olivier Caen, Joost Helfen, Lukas Cotte, Marine Reischig, Peter Janssens, Koen Faculty/Department Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry Publication type article Publication 2011 London , 2011 Subject Chemistry Source (journal) Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry. - London Volume/pages 26(2011) :12 , p. 2442-2451 ISSN 0267-9477 ISI 000297030400009 Carrier E Target language English (eng) Full text (Publishers DOI) Affiliation University of Antwerp Abstract The speed and effectiveness of a conservation treatment used for stained glass windows have been investigated. Dark-coloured Mn-rich stains can be found in the alteration layer of ancient glass artefacts and cause the surface to turn brown/black: this phenomenon is known as Mn-browning or Mn-staining. While in glass manganese is present in the +II or +III oxidation states, in the Mn-rich bodies, manganese is in a higher oxidation state (+IV). In restoration practice, mildly reducing solutions are employed to eliminate the dark colour and restore the clear appearance of the glass. In this paper the effectiveness and side effects of the use of hydroxylamine hydrochloride for this purpose are assessed. Archaeological fragments of stained glass windows, dated to the 14th century and originating from Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge (UK), were examined by means of synchrotron radiation (SR) based microscopic X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XANES) and microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and with high resolution computed absorption tomography (μ-CT) before, during and after the treatment. The monitoring of the glass fragments during the treatment allows us to better understand the manner in which the process unfolds and its kinetics. The results obtained reveal that the hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment is effective, but also that it has a number of unwanted side effects. These findings are useful for optimizing the time and other modalities of the Mn-reducing treatment as well as minimizing its unwanted results. E-info http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000297030400009&DestLinkType=RelatedRecords&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=ef845e08c439e550330acc77c7d2d848 http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000297030400009&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=ef845e08c439e550330acc77c7d2d848 http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000297030400009&DestLinkType=CitingArticles&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=ef845e08c439e550330acc77c7d2d848 Handle