Reproductive parameters of female **Pan paniscus** and **P-troglodytes** : quality versus quantity
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
International journal of primatology. - New York
, p. 55-71
University of Antwerp
We investigated intra- and interspecific differences in life history and reproductive parameters in bonobos ( Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes). We compare the parameters of wild and captive females in order to shed light on the influence of habitat or specific differences or both on reproduction. We present new and additional information on reproductive parameters from captive bonobos and chimpanzees. Captive chimpanzees birth more live offspring and have a shorter interbirth interval, but experience higher infant mortality than captive bonobos. Although captive bonobo females tend to start reproduction at a younger age than chimpanzees, this is effectively only so for wild-born females of both species. Ultimately both species reach the same rate of production of offspring surviving to 5 yr. These results contrast with data from the wild. Wild bonobos tend to have higher reproductive success, a higher fertility rate and a shorter interbirth interval than wild chimpanzees. Reproduction is similar for wild and captive bonobos, which suggests that they are producing at their maximum under both conditions. Overall captive chimpanzees perform better than their wild conspecifics, probably because of lower feeding competition. Infant survival is the only specific difference not affected by captivity. Bonobo infants survive better, which suggests that chimpanzee infants are more at risk. We argue that the interspecific variation in reproductive parameters in captivity is related to the different influence of captivity on reproduction and different pressures of external sources of infant and juvenile mortality.