Force fields in close-packed crystals and their melts in relation to defects, surface energies and mechanical properties
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Engineering sciences. Technology
Philosophical magazine: A: physics of condensed matter: defects and mechanical properties. - London, 1978 - 2002
, p. 1335-1348
University of Antwerp
Pair potentials afford a quantitative starting point for studying the vacancy formation energy E-v in hot close-packed crystals such as Ar. A summary will be given of the relation of E-v to the melting temperature T-m, via liquid structure, and a brief comment made on the role of three-body-forces. This leads into a discussion of 'criteria' characterizing the solid-liquid phase transition, one of these being the assertion that a close-packed crystal melts when the internal energy required to create a localized hole (the unrelaxed vacancy in the hot crystal) is equal to the change in internal energy at T-m required to expand the liquid by one atomic volume. When N-body forces become important and are treated by so-called glue models, exemplified in the work of R. A. Johnson (1988, Physical Review B, 37, 3924), on a model of Cu metal, the important role of the shear modulus in determining both E-v (now at T = 0) and the divacancy binding energy is stressed. Finally, E-v in, for example, Al is argued to be closely connected with surface energy, through the similarity of conduction-electron density profiles around the vacant site and through the planar surface. This leads to a brief account of unpublished work on mechanical properties in the liquid at T-m, and in particular shear viscosity, which is related to surface tension via the velocity of sound and the thickness of the liquid vapour interface.