Functioning of thiocyanate ions during sulphur and sulphur-plus-gold Sensitization
Faculty of Sciences. Chemistry
Springfield :Soc. imaging science & technology, 2000
Engineering sciences. Technology
International Symposium on Silver Halide Imaging, Sep. 11-14, 2000, St. Adele, Canada
University of Antwerp
Not much about the effect of thiocyanate addition on the sulphur ripening is known, although it is used for many applications in photographic practice. Via a combination of tracer analysis and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy the effect of thiocyanate addition on the sulphur and sulphur-plus-gold ripening could be unveiled. When thiocyanate is added prior to the sulphur addition, it appears to rearrange the silver halide surface in such way that the sulphur deposition rate is enhanced, but the supply of interstitials is limited. Addition of thiocyanate after the sulphur reaction results in the formation of thiocyanate complexes with silver, from which a silver ion is more easily deposited in a surface cell of the silver sulphide clusters thus enhancing the sensitization rate. For sulphur-plus-gold sensitized emulsions it was observed that part of the gold ions could be removed out of the Ag2-xAuxS clusters by addition of thiocyanate ions and subsequent washing. Hence, it was concluded that two different types of gold ions are present in the silver sulphide clusters; 1. gold ions which are substitutional for silver (bound between sulphur and bromide ions) 2. gold ions which bridge two or three sulphur atoms. Incorporation of gold ions into silver sulphide clusters suppresses their optical absorption in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Since the optical absorption at 505 nm can completely be restored by addition of thiocyanate, it is assumed that the entity absorbing at this wavelength is a monomer of silver sulphide.