Polymerase gamma deficiency (POLG) : clinical course in a child with a two stage evolution from infantile myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum to an Alpers syndrome and neuropathological findings of Leighs encephalopathy
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
European journal of paediatric neurology. - London
, p. 542-548
University of Antwerp
Aims Description of the clinical course in a child compound heterozygous for POLG1 mutations, neuropathology findings and results of dietary treatment based on fasting avoidance and long chain triglycerides (LCT) restriction. Results At 31/2 months of age the patient presented with severe hypoglycemia, hyperlactatemia, moderate ketosis and hepatic failure. Fasting hypoglycemia occurred 8 h after meals. The hypoglycemia did not respond to glucagon. She was supplemented with IV glucose and/or frequent feedings, but developed liver insufficiency which was reversed by long-chain triglyceride (LCT) restriction. Alpha-foeto-protein (AFP) levels were elevated and returned to low values after dietary treatment. Liver biopsy displayed cirrhosis, bile ductular proliferation, steatosis, isolated complex IV defect in part of the liver mitochondria, and mitochondrial DNA depletion (27% of control values). Two heterozygous mutations (p. [Ala467Thr] + p. [Gly848Ser]) were found in the POLG1 gene. At 3 years of age she progressively developed refractory mixed type seizures including a focal component and psychomotor regression which fulfilled the criteria of Alpers syndrome (AS) although the initial presentation was compatible with infantile myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS). She died at 5 years of age of respiratory insufficiency. Neuropathologic investigation revealed lesions in the right striatal area and the inferior colliculi typical for Leighs encephalopathy. Conclusion The present patient showed an evolution from infantile MCHS to AS, and dietary treatment seemed to slow the progression of liver failure. In spite of the late clinical features of AS, it extends the neuropathological spectrum of AS and polymerase gamma deficiency (POLG) to Leigh syndrome lesions.