Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (**Fagus sylvatica** L.) and Norway spruce (**Picea abies** (L.) Karst)
Faculty of Sciences. Bioscience Engineering
Engineering sciences. Technology
The science of the total environment. - Amsterdam
, p. 168-182
University of Antwerp
To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H+ increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H+, NH4+, NO3− and highest during the dormant season for Na+, Cl−, SO42 − (beech and spruce) and K+, Ca2 + and Mg2 + (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K+, Ca2 + and Mg2 + was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H+ occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce.