Endogenous occurrence of some anabolic steroids in swine matrices
Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences. Veterinary Sciences
Food additives and contaminants. - Basingstoke
, p. 808-815
Following findings of 17β-19-nortestosterone (150200 µg kg−1) in pigs of unspecified gender imported into the European Union, a study to determine steroid and hormone levels in swine from six age/gender categories (uncastrated old boars, cryptorchids, one intersex, barrows, gilts and sows) was initiated. Indeed, for some hormones there has been a discussion about their being endo- or exogenous. Tissue and urine samples from swine from each of the six categories were obtained in Belgium, France, the Netherlands and the USA. Samples were analysed in three laboratories. Quantitation was obtained for norandrostenedione, 19-nortestosterone and boldenone. The results give a well-documented overview of the status of the presence of these hormones in swine. The data illustrate that uncastrated old boars produce the highest percentage of positive matrices, followed by the cryptorchids. Concentrations in the matrices of the barrows and the gilts are lower. Also, sow matrices contain low amounts of nor-steroids. Furthermore, urine samples from an intersex pig contains a higher concentration of nortestosterone than sows and can therefore be suspected for illegal use of these hormones. Veterinarians taking samples in pig farms for the analysis of hormones need to be aware of the presence and concentrations of these substances in the different categories.