Title
Introducing measure-by-wire, the systematic use of systems and control theory in transmission electron microscopyIntroducing measure-by-wire, the systematic use of systems and control theory in transmission electron microscopy
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Research group
Vision lab
Publication type
article
Publication
Amsterdam,
Subject
Chemistry
Source (journal)
Ultramicroscopy. - Amsterdam
Volume/pages
111(2011):11, p. 1581-1591
ISSN
0304-3991
ISI
000300461400009
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) are the tools of choice for academic and industrial research at the nano-scale. Due to their increasing use for routine, repetitive measurement tasks (e.g., quality control in production lines) there is a clear need for a new generation of high-throughput microscopes designed to autonomously extract information from specimens (e.g., particle size distribution, chemical composition, structural information, etc.). To aid in their development, a new engineering perspective on TEM design, based on principles from systems and control theory, is proposed here: measure-by-wire (not to be confused with remote microscopy). Under this perspective, the TEM operator yields the direct control of the microscope's internal processes to a hierarchy of feedback controllers and high-level supervisors. These make use of dynamical models of the main TEM components together with currently available measurement techniques to automate processes such as defocus correction or specimen displacement. Measure-by-wire is discussed in depth, and its methodology is illustrated through a detailed example: the design of a defocus regulator, a type of feedback controller that is akin to existing autofocus procedures. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
E-info
https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/iruaauth/75d1c5/b491514.pdf
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