Title
Multi-layered bird beaks : a finite-element approach towards the role of keratin in stress dissipation Multi-layered bird beaks : a finite-element approach towards the role of keratin in stress dissipation
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
London ,
Subject
Physics
Biology
Engineering sciences. Technology
Source (journal)
Journal of the Royal Society interface: physical and life sciences. - London
Volume/pages
9(2012) :73 , p. 1787-1796
ISSN
1742-5689
ISI
000305810200008
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Bird beaks are layered structures, which contain a bony core and an outer keratin layer. The elastic moduli of this bone and keratin were obtained in a previous study. However, the mechanical role and interaction of both materials in stress dissipation during seed crushing remain unknown. In this paper, a multi-layered finite-element (FE) model of the Java finch's upper beak (Padda oryzivora) is established. Validation measurements are conducted using in vivo bite forces and by comparing the displacements with those obtained by digital speckle pattern interferometry. Next, the Young modulus of bone and keratin in this FE model was optimized in order to obtain the smallest peak von Mises stress in the upper beak. To do so, we created a surrogate model, which also allows us to study the impact of changing material properties of both tissues on the peak stresses. The theoretically best values for both moduli in the Java finch are retrieved and correspond well with previous experimentally obtained values, suggesting that material properties are tuned to the mechanical demands imposed during seed crushing.
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