Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in an Indonesian prison : prevalence, risk factors and implications of HIV screening
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Tropical medicine and international health. - Oxford
, p. 1491-1498
University of Antwerp
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to anti retroviral treatment (ART). METHODS In a non-anonymous survey in an Indonesian prison for drug-related offences, all incoming prisoners and symptomatic resident prisoners were counselled and offered testing for HIV, hepatitis B and C. RESULTS Screening was performed in 679 incoming prisoners, of whom 639 (94.1%) agreed to be tested, revealing a seroprevalence of 7.2% (95% CI 5.2-9.2) for HIV, 5.8% (95% CI 3.9-7.6) for HBsAg and 18.6% (95% CI 15.5-21.6) for HCV. Of 57 resident prisoners tested, 29.8% were HIV-positive. HIV infection was strongly associated with injecting drug use (IDU; P < 0.001), but not with a history of unsafe sex. Screening of incoming prisoners was responsible for diagnosing and treating HIV in 73.0%, respectively, and 68.0% of HIV-positive individuals. CONCLUSIONS HIV and HCV are highly prevalent among incoming Indonesian prisoners and almost entirely explained by IDU. Our study is the first to show that voluntary HIV counselling and testing during the intake process in prison may greatly improve access to ART in a developing country.