Title
Stag beetle battle behavior and its associated anatomical adaptations Stag beetle battle behavior and its associated anatomical adaptations
Author
Faculty/Department
Faculty of Sciences. Biology
Faculty of Sciences. Physics
Publication type
article
Publication
New York, N.Y. ,
Subject
Biology
Source (journal)
Journal of insect behavior. - New York, N.Y.
Volume/pages
28(2015) :3 , p. 227-244
ISSN
0892-7553
ISI
000354634100001
Carrier
E
Target language
English (eng)
Full text (Publishers DOI)
Affiliation
University of Antwerp
Abstract
Male stag beetles battle for females with their impressive, oversized mandibles. We describe their fighting behavior, which is essential to understand the evolution and morphology of their weaponry. Our behavioral analysis reveals several anatomical structures that are important for fighting, and our morphological investigations show how these may be adapted for their functions. Stag beetle fights are much more variable than other armed beetles battles. They spend considerable time and effort in dislodging their opponent, that clings to the substrate with its tarsal claws. These tarsal claws are also indispensable to maintain balance in the most spectacular battles, when they lift a rival high in the air. The male claws are highly curved and have an increased height for this purpose. The prothoracic muscles are hypertrophied to support the lifting movement. The largest beetle wins in 85 % of the fights and the smaller the difference in mandible length is between the rivals, the longer the battles can last. The long mandibles enable males to reach the opponents legs in order to dislodge it. For this purpose, they bite with all parts of their mandibles, even though the distal part is more vulnerable for failure and transfers less bite force. Blindfolded experiments prove that visual information is not a requisite for a successful battle.
E-info
https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/iruaauth/54acc8/2028f5870e6.pdf
Full text (open access)
https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/irua/ee94e7/9733.pdf
E-info
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